by Martha K. Ferede, Consultant GEM Report, Lecturer in International and Comparative Higher Education, Sciences-Po
In addition to increased provision of primary and secondary schooling, refugees also need pathways into accredited tertiary education programs. As was highlighted in the recent GEM Report paper with UNHCR, only 1% of refugees have access to higher education. In recent years, several online initiatives have risen to meet the demand. This blog considers their potential and pitfalls.
Why it matters
Higher education, including TVET, improves the viability of the three durable solutions for refugees: repatriation back home, integration into host countries or resettlement into third countries. As outlined by INEE, among other benefits, tertiary education serves a protective function while also increasing refugees’ aptitude and capacity, opportunities to be assets to host countries, and to develop skill sets necessary to rebuild their countries.
Online Higher Education Initiatives
Since 2010, several organizations have begun to offer online higher education for refugees (see Table 1); they share points of similarities and distinction. Nearly all use a blended learning approach to deliver their curricula, combining online learning through webinars and MOOCS with on-site tutoring and mentoring. As recognized institutions, or by partnering with such universities, these programs are able to offer accredited certificates, diplomas and degrees. Differences include study subjects, location, enrolment and partners. There are also significant differences in funding and curriculum configuration. Whereas Kiron plans to start with two years of online MOOCs followed by two years at a partner university, BHER begins with a preparation course and builds incrementally to a certificate, and students may then continue their studies for a diploma and then a bachelor degree.
Table1. Main Providers of Online Higher Education for Refugees
|Initiative||Launched / Funding||Locations||Curriculum/ Diploma||Implemen- tation and University Partners||Enrolled|
|Jesuit Commons-Higher Education at the Margins||
Private Donor & Jesuit Refugee Service Funds
The Diploma of Liberal Studies (45 credits)
Community Service Learning Tracks (CSLTs)
Jesuit colleges and univer- sities worldwide
Regis University in Denver, Colorado (accredits diploma)
1,900 since 2010
Privately funded (Foundation North & others)
|Dadaab, Kakuma and Nairobi, Kenya||Certificate in Community Interpreting (Dadaab)
Post-graduate continuing education degree in Humanitar- ian Interpreting – fully online (Kakuma)
|Kenyatta University, University of Geneva, UNIGE/InZone||314|
|Borderless Higher Education for Refugees (BHER)||2013
Public (CIDA) and private funding
|Dadaab, Kenya||Teacher training certificates and diplomas; Stackable and portable earned credits can go towards full BA degree program in a variety of subjects||Windle Trust Kenya, UNHCR, WUSC, (University Partners), Kenyatta University Moi University, UBC, York University||290|
|Kiziba, Rwanda||US degree in Business Communi-cations or Health Management||Government of Rwanda (MIDIMAR), ADRA, UNHCR, Southern New Hampshire University||25 / year|
(Based in Berlin, Germany)
|varies||MOOC platforms coursera, edX, iversity and openHPI
18universities across Europe.
|1250 1st year MOOC|
Refugees face many obstacles in accessing traditional higher education, such as lack of documentation providing recognition of prior learning, and not being able to afford tuition fees or learning materials. Thus, these innovative initiatives offer refugees opportunities where few exist.
However, online education for refugees also poses a few conundrums. First, as with all ICT for education initiatives, the need for reliable infrastructure –electricity, sufficient computers, access to Internet – is a basic requirement and limits not only how extensively these programs can be scaled up, but also their accessibility to the isolated learners.
Second, online courses and MOOCs in and of themselves can also be problematic. Current studies report that MOOCs have high attrition rates, with only about 13% completion rates. However, InZone has been able to show that MOOCs coupled with on-site tutoring and learning communities improve learners’ motivation and contribute to successful course completion.
Some point to a spreading dissatisfaction among local adults, who may not have the means to access higher education. This problem appears to have been anticipated since BHER, JC-HEM and InZone leave open a number of spots on their courses for host community candidates.
To be sure, these programs are still in their infancy. Only JC-HEM has graduated a substantial number of graduates. Without empirical research studies, it is not yet possible to accurately evaluate the full benefits that on-line higher education affords to refugees.
Finally, it is plausible that degree earning refugees, who do not have the right to work, or can only be offered incentive pay, may feel even more frustrated. While this is not a reason to limit the provision of such opportunities, it presents a policy gap that must be considered. Programme providers can work with host governments to improve refugees’ opportunities for work and higher pay – particularly for those with recognized degrees in labour shortage areas of the economy.
Rebuilding the Future
Higher education for refugees must be considered a priority and not a luxury, as it is sometimes framed. For the first time, and rightfully so, higher education is part of UNHCR’s 2012-2016 Education Strategy.
Recognition of refugees’ existing credentials is an essential part of this conversation. Although more work is needed, targeted guidelines by the EU and the obligation of establishing procedures to assess refugees’ and Internally Displaced Persons’ (IDPs) qualifications in the 2014 Revised Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Certificates, Diplomas, Degrees and Other Academic Qualifications in Higher Education in African States, shows promise.
Engaging refugees in higher education provides a pathway to self-reliance and peace building. Ultimately it gives hope. When one has lost everything, education is a solid foundation on which to rebuild one’s future. When education is offered online or in blended form, it is resting on uncharted and unsteady ground. Yet, with 15 million refugees, protracted exile averaging 25 years, and the majority of refugees hosted by developing countries, new and creative ways of providing education are essential. There are many issues to work out in providing online higher education for refugees, starting with how to scale up efforts in a responsible and pedagogically sound manner. But, like all innovation, there is also great potential.